Morphological Tags

MTAAC has adapted a set of 92 morphological tags (28 nominal tags, 57 finite verbal tags, 7 non-finite verbal tags) from the Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerial Royal Inscriptions Project (ETCSRI), with modifications. For the full list of these tags, please visit the following ETCSRI URL:


The following nine morphological tags deviate from that found at ETCSRI and are specific to the MTAAC project:

Finite Verbal Stem STEM V
Finite Plural Stem STEM-PL V.PL
Finite Reduplicated Stem STEM-RDP V.RDP
Non-finite Verbal Stem Abolsute STEM.ABS NF.V.ABS
Non-finite Verbal Stem Preterite STEM.SUB NF.V.PT
Non-finite Verbal Stem Present-Future STEM.PF NF.V.F
Non-Finite Plural Stem STEM-PL NF.V.PL
Non-Finite Reduplicated Stem STEM-RDP NF.V.RDP
Non-Finite Present-Future Stem STEM-PF NF.V.PF

Named Entities

ORACC: http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/doc/help/languages/propernouns/index.html

ETCSL: http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/edition2/etcslhelp.php#propernouns

Named Entities      
DN Divine Name DN divine name
EN Ethnos Name EN ethnic name
GN Geographical Name* GN geographical name
MN Month Name MN month name
ON** Object Name ON** other name
PN Personal Name PN personal name
RN Royal Name RN royal name
SN Settlement Name SN settlement name
TN Temple Name TN temple name
WN Watercourse Name WN watercourse name
AN Agricultural (locus) Name    
CN Celestial Name    
FN Field Name    
LN Line Name (ancestral clan)    
QN Quarter Name (city area)    
YN Year Name    
  • Lands and other geographical entities without their own tag.
    ** Note the different usages of the ON tag.

Part of Speech (POS) tags

ORACC: http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/doc/help/languages/akkadian/index.html (scroll down to half the page)

ETCSL: http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/edition2/etcslhelp.php#pos

UD: http://universaldependencies.org/docs/en/pos/all.html

Penn: https://www.ling.upenn.edu/courses/Fall_2003/ling001/penn_treebank_pos.html

ORACC   ETCSL   UD   Penn Treebank POS    
AJ adjective (including statives) AJ adjective ADJ adjective JJ Adjective 7
            JJR Adjective, comparative 8
            JJS Adjective, superlative 9
AV adverb AV adverb ADV   RB Adverb 20
            RBR Adverb, comparative 21
            RBS Adverb, superlative 22
NU number NU numeral NUM Numeral CD Cardinal number 2
CNJ conjunction C conjunction CONJ coordinating conjunction CC Coordinating conjunction 1
DET determinative pronoun PD pronoun/determiner DET determiner DT Determiner 3
            EX Existential there 4
            FW Foreign word 5
J interjection I interjection INTJ interjection UH interjection 26
            LS List item marker 10
            NNS Noun, plural 13
N noun (including statives) N noun NOUN Noun NN Noun, singular or mass 12
        PART particle PRT particle (chunk tags)
            PRP Personal pronoun 18
            POS Possessive ending 17
PP possessive pronoun         PRP$ Possessive pronoun 19
            WP$ Possessive wh-pronoun 35
            PDT Predeterminer 16
        SCONJ subordinating conjunction IN Preposition or subordinating conjunction 6
            NNPS Proper noun, plural 15
        PROPN Proper noun NNP Proper noun, singular 14
        SYM symbol SYM Symbol 24
            TO to 25
            VBZ Verb, 3rd person singular present 32
V verb (including infinitives, marked with EPOS ‘N and gerundive GW) V verb VERB Verb VB Verb, base form 27
            VBG Verb, gerund or present participle 29
            VBP Verb, non-3rd person singular present 31
            VBN Verb, past participle 30
            VBD Verb, past tense 28
            WRB Wh-adverb 36
            WDT Wh-determiner 33
            WP Wh-pronoun 34
    ADP adposition          
    AUX auxiliary verb          
IP independent/anaphoric pronoun              
DP demonstrative pronoun              
MOD modal, negative, or conditional particle         MD Modal 11
PRP preposition              
QP interrogative pronoun              
RP reflexive/reciprocal pronoun              
REL relative pronoun              
SBJ subjunction              
XP indefinite pronoun              
    NEG negator          
        PUNCT punctuation      
        X Other      

Morphological tags

Morphological tags — comparative chart

Morphology chart under development

The ablative’s function of distributive is not distinguished in the two sets.

ETCSL Morphological tags

The ETCSL morphological tags mostly give a normalization that can then be treated with rules to disambiguate meaning. Exception is made for the verbal bases which are explicitly identified (aspect, plural, etc).

Some examples:

POS form normalized
N kur-kur-ra-gin7 L,ak.gin
N cag4-gada-la2-be2-e-ne L,bi.ene
V L,ani.ak hul2-la-ni-a
V mu.ra.I.n:L e-ri-in-bar-re-ec
V ga.V.n.ci:L ga-an-ci-gen
V ha.ba.NI.n:L ha-ba-ni-in-dug4

The tags seem only to appear on words that display affixes (the absolutive is not marked).

For a full description of the morphological annotation system, see the ETCSRI website.

The ETCSRI morphological tagging is very explicit and consists of three different attributes:

  1. The morpheme column based on logical table of possible suites of morphemes
  2. The usage of the morphemes
  3. The normalized form of the text

Attributes 2 and 3 are used in our CoNLL-U annotation in a hybrid attribute, eg:




MTAAC modified version


Missing affixes are added in the morphology, eg. nin-a-ni becomes




The morphological tags are explicit and give information not only about the morpheme at hand but hint at the construction of the whole verbal chain. Eg:

morpheme tag meaning
enden 1-PL-A first person plural agent suffix
enden 1-PL-S first person plural subject suffix (df)
enden 1-PL first person plural suffix in plural transitive preterite verbal forms

Or they give indications about subtleties in meaning:

morpheme tag meaning
e DAT-NH non-human dative case-marker
e L3-NH non-human locative3 case-marker

Émilie Pagé-Perron